August 13 1961: Berlin is divided

August 13: General Interest
1961: Berlin is divided

Shortly after
midnight on this day in 1961, East German soldiers begin laying down barbed wire
and bricks as a barrier between Soviet-controlled East Berlin and the democratic
western section of the city.

After World War II, defeated Germany was
divided into Soviet, American, British and French zones of occupation. The city
of Berlin, though technically part of the Soviet zone, was also split, with the
Soviets taking the eastern part of the city. After a massive Allied airlift in
June 1948 foiled a Soviet attempt to blockade West Berlin, the eastern section
was drawn even more tightly into the Soviet fold. Over the next 12 years, cut
off from its western counterpart and basically reduced to a Soviet satellite,
East Germany saw between 2.5 million and 3 million of its citizens head to West
Germany in search of better opportunities. By 1961, some 1,000 East
Germans–including many skilled laborers, professionals and intellectuals–were
leaving every day.

In August, Walter Ulbricht, the Communist leader of
East Germany, got the go-ahead from Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev to begin
the sealing off of all access between East and West Berlin. Soldiers began the
work over the night of August 12-13, laying more than 100 miles of barbed wire
slightly inside the East Berlin border. The wire was soon replaced by a
six-foot-high, 96-mile-long wall of concrete blocks, complete with guard towers,
machine gun posts and searchlights. East German officers known as Volkspolizei
(“Volpos”) patrolled the Berlin Wall day and night.

Many Berlin
residents on that first morning found themselves suddenly cut off from friends
or family members in the other half of the city. Led by their mayor, Willi
Brandt, West Berliners demonstrated against the wall, as Brandt criticized
Western democracies, particularly the United States, for failing to take a stand
against it. President John F. Kennedy had earlier said publicly that the United
States could only really help West Berliners and West Germans, and that any kind
of action on behalf of East Germans would only result in failure.

The
Berlin Wall was one of the most powerful and iconic symbols of the Cold War. In
June 1963, Kennedy gave his famous “Ich bin ein Berliner” (“I am a Berliner”)
speech in front of the Wall, celebrating the city as a symbol of freedom and
democracy in its resistance to tyranny and oppression. The height of the Wall
was raised to 10 feet in 1970 in an effort to stop escape attempts, which at
that time came almost daily. From 1961 to 1989, a total of 5,000 East Germans
escaped; many more tried and failed. High profile shootings of some would-be
defectors only intensified the Western world’s hatred of the Wall.

Finally, in the late 1980s, East Germany, fueled by the decline of the
Soviet Union, began to implement a number of liberal reforms. On November 9,
1989, masses of East and West Germans alike gathered at the Berlin Wall and
began to climb over and dismantle it. As this symbol of Cold War repression was
destroyed, East and West Germany became one nation again, signing a formal
treaty of unification on October 3, 1990.

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